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Intro to stream APIs in Java

Intro to stream APIs in Java

Stream API was introduced in Java 8. It provided a declarative programming approach to iterate and perform operations over a collection. Until Java 7, for and for each were the only options available, which was an imperative programming approach. In this article I will introduce you to the Stream API and how it provides an abstraction over the common operations performed over a collection.

Before diving deep into the examples of operations performed over a collection using Stream API, let’s use an example to understand the Stream API itself.

In the above example, multiple operations are chained together to form something like a processing pipeline. This is what we refer as a stream pipeline. The stream pipeline made of the following three parts:

  1. Stream builder — In the above example, we have a collection of Person represented by people. The stream() method, that was added on the Collection interface in Java 8, is called upon people to build the stream. Common sources for stream apart from Collection are arrays ( and generator functions (Stream.iterate() and Stream.generate()).
  2. Intermediate operation(s) — Once a stream object is created, you can apply zero, one or more than one operations on the stream by chaining the operations, like in a builder pattern. All the methods that you see in the above example, filter and map, are methods on the Stream interface and they return the instance of Streamitself to enable chaining. As the operations return Stream itself, they are called intermediate operations.
  3. Terminal operation — Once all the computations are applied, you finish the pipeline by applying a mandatory terminal operator. The terminal operators are also methods on the Stream interface and return a resultant type that is not a Stream. In the example above the collect(Collectors.toList()) returns an instance of List. The resultant type may or may not be a Collection based on which terminal operation is used. It can be a primitive value or an instance of an object that is not a Collection.

Let’s now look at the basic operations that we can do using Stream. Though we will be learning about the operations applied individually on Stream, you can always mix and match them to derive different results.


Transforming means converting the type of value that is stored in each element of a collection. Let’s say we want to derive a collection of names of people from the person collection. In such a case we have to use a transformation operation to transform the person to name.

In the example below, we use the map intermediate operator to transform People to a String holding the name of the person. Person::getName is a method reference and is equivalent to person -> person.getName() and is an instance of a Function.


As the word suggests, filtering operations allow objects to flow through itself only if the object fulfills the conditions laid upon by a Predicate. The filter operator is composed with the Predicate before it is applied to the Stream.

Filtering can also be thought of as selecting few elements based on count. Stream API provides skip() and limit() operators for this purpose.

In the first example below, the person -> person.getAge() < 20 Predicate is used to build a collection containing only people below age of 20. In the second example below, 10 persons are selected after skipping first 2.


Again as the word suggests, searching on a collection means to search for an element or the existence of an element based on a criteria, which again is represented as a Predicate. Searching for an element may or may not return a value, hence you get an Optional. Searching for existence of an element will return a boolean.

In the examples below, searching for an element is done using findAny() and searching for existence is done using anyMatch().


If you want to order the elements in a collection, you can use the sorted intermediate operator. It takes an instance of a Comparator interface. To create the instance I have used the comparing factory method on Comparator. If you are interested to know more around this, please checkout this link.

In the example below the resulting collection is sorted by age in descending order.

Unlike other operations we have seen till now, the sorted operation is stateful. It means that the operator will have to see all the elements in the stream before the result of sorting can be provided to further intermediate or terminal operator. Another example of such an operator is distinct.


Sometimes you want to derive information from a collection. As an example, deriving the sum of ages of all the people. In Stream API, this is achieved using terminal operatorsreduce and collect are the generic terminal operators provided for this purpose. There are high level operators also like sumcountsummaryStatistics, etc. that are built upon reduce and collect.

Caesar Decryption of string using javascript

Caesar Decryption of string using javascript

Caesar decryption is basically reversing the encryption. Before you go ahead, you should look at Caesar encryption, this will help you understand the concept of encryption, using which you can decrypt the encrypted string.

In brief, Caesar decryption is downshifting of string by some amount. i.e. if unshifting amount is 3, and want to decrypt “d”, the result will be “a”.

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